Saturday 3 February 2024

What are Pseudo-class Selector and Pseudo-element Selector? 077

 What are Pseudo-class Selector and Pseudo-element Selector?

Pseudo-Classes and Pseudo-Elements in CSS: Adding Dynamic Styling

In CSS, pseudo-classes and pseudo-elements offer powerful tools to extend your styling beyond static appearances. They allow you to target elements based on their state or condition, or manipulate specific parts of an element, adding dynamism and interactivity to your website.


  • Modify an element's style based on its state or condition.

  • Don't create new elements but alter the look or behavior of existing ones.

  • Common examples:

  • :hover: Styles elements when the user hovers over them with the mouse.

  • :active: Styles elements when the user clicks on them.

  • :first-child: Styles the first child element of its parent.

  • :last-child: Styles the last child element of its parent.

  • :disabled: Styles disabled form elements.



a:hover {
  text-decoration: underline;
  color: blue;

  • This rule changes the appearance of links on hover, adding an underline and changing their color.


  • Insert content before or after an element, or style specific parts of the element itself.

  • Essentially create visual or structural additions using CSS.

  • Common examples:

  • ::before: Inserts content before an element.

  • ::after: Inserts content after an element.

  • ::first-letter: Styles the first letter of an element.

  • ::selection: Styles the text a user selects.



h1::before {
  content: "**";
  color: red;
  font-weight: bold;

  • This rule adds a red double asterisk before all h1 headings.

Key Differences:

  • Pseudo-classes: Dynamically alter an element's style based on its state.

  • Pseudo-elements: Add content or style specific parts of an element's structure.

When to Use Each:

  • Pseudo-classes: For hover effects, focus styles, active states, and targeting elements based on their position within their parent container.

  • Pseudo-elements: For adding decorative elements, styling specific parts of text, or creating custom content using CSS.


  • Both pseudo-classes and pseudo-elements can have higher specificity than other selectors, so use them thoughtfully to avoid unintended style overrides.

  • Employ them strategically to create visually appealing and interactive elements, enhancing user experience and engagement.

By effectively utilizing these powerful tools, you can elevate your CSS skills and craft dynamic and visually engaging web pages that respond to user interactions and adapt to different states.

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