Wednesday 10 January 2024

What is Ballerina Programming language , who developed and when, Example Code hello world and addition of 2 numbers program

What is Ballerina Programming language

Ballerina is an exciting newcomer to the programming world! Launched in 2022, it's an open-source, cloud-native programming language aiming to revolutionize how we build applications for the modern era. Here's a breakdown of its key features:

Focus on integration: Ballerina shines in connecting different systems and services. It provides built-in support for diverse data formats (JSON, XML, etc.), network protocols (HTTP, gRPC, etc.), and connectors, simplifying integrations compared to generic languages.

Modern and versatile: Despite its integration focus, Ballerina is a general-purpose language capable of building various applications. It has a familiar syntax reminiscent of C-family languages and offers powerful features like concurrency, error handling, and security.

Built for the cloud: Ballerina embraces cloud-native principles. It excels at building microservices and APIs, leveraging features like containerization and distributed transactions.

Easy to learn and use: Ballerina boasts a simple and elegant syntax that's easy to pick up for programmers familiar with other languages. It also offers a unique graphical representation of code in the form of sequence diagrams, aiding visualization and understanding.

Open-source and community-driven: Ballerina is an open-source project with a growing community. This ensures continuous development, extensive documentation, and readily available support.

Here are some specific areas where Ballerina shines:

  • API development: Building and consuming RESTful APIs and other web services.

  • Microservices architecture: Creating efficient and scalable microservices with built-in integration capabilities.

  • Data integration: Connecting diverse data sources and platforms effortlessly.

  • Event-driven systems: Processing real-time data streams and responding to events effectively.

If you're looking for a modern, versatile language to build cloud-native applications and simplify integrations, Ballerina is definitely worth checking out. Its ease of use, powerful features, and growing community make it a promising force in the programming landscape.

Feel free to ask any further questions you might have about Ballerina! I'm happy to share my knowledge and resources.

Here's a comprehensive overview of the Ballerina programming language:

Key Characteristics:

  • Open-source: Freely available for use and contribution.

  • Cloud-native: Designed for building applications in cloud environments.

  • Integration-focused: Optimized for creating integrations between systems and services.

  • Type-safe: Ensures code reliability and prevents errors at compile time.

  • Concurrent: Supports efficient handling of multiple tasks simultaneously.

Key Features:

  • Built-in network primitives: Supports common network protocols (HTTP, FTP, etc.) and data formats (JSON, XML, etc.) directly in the language.

  • Sequence diagrams and flowcharts: Visually represent code flow, enhancing readability and maintainability.

  • Workers for concurrency: Manages tasks asynchronously, improving performance and responsiveness.

  • Safety primitives: Guards against common concurrency issues like deadlocks.

  • Rich ecosystem: Offers connectors for databases, messaging systems, and other technologies.

Common Use Cases:

  • Microservices development: Creating small, independent services that communicate over networks.

  • API development and management: Building and exposing APIs for application integration.

  • Integration solutions: Connecting disparate systems and services, such as databases, enterprise applications, and cloud services.

  • Event-driven architecture: Developing systems that respond to events in real-time.


  • Increased developer productivity: Streamlines integration development with concise syntax and built-in constructs.

  • Reduced errors: Type safety and concurrency safeguards promote code reliability.

  • Improved maintainability: Visual code representation and clear abstractions enhance code understanding.

  • Enhanced performance: Optimized for cloud environments and concurrent execution.

  • Strong community and support: Backed by WSO2 and an active community.

If you're working on cloud-native applications or integrations, Ballerina is worth considering for its unique focus on these areas and its ability to simplify development and improve performance.

who developed and when Ballerina Programming language

Ballerina was developed by WSO2, an API management software company, in 2016. The primary goal was to create a code-based alternative to configuration-based tools for integrating microservices. They officially made the first production-grade release in May 2018.

Early on, the project received valuable contributions from other players in the tech industry, including Google, Bitnami, Honeycomb, and Apache OpenWhisk.

It's important to note that Ballerina continues to evolve under the open-source community model, with WSO2 providing the core support and infrastructure. So, while WSO2 initiated its development in 2016, the language's progress and future are shaped by a collaborative effort.

I hope this clarifies the timeline and development of Ballerina!

Ballerina programming give one Realtime use case 

Here's a compelling real-time use case for Ballerina programming:

Real-Time Fraud Detection in Financial Transactions


  • Financial institutions face constant threats of fraudulent transactions, leading to substantial losses and reputational damage.

  • Traditional fraud detection systems often rely on batch processing, introducing delays and potentially missing crucial events.

Solution using Ballerina:

  1. Ingesting Real-Time Data Streams:

  • Ballerina's built-in support for network protocols enables seamless integration with messaging systems like Kafka or MQTT to capture transaction streams in real-time.

  1. Implementing Complex Fraud Detection Logic:

  • Ballerina's expressive syntax and type system facilitate the creation of sophisticated algorithms to evaluate transaction patterns, identify anomalies, and trigger alerts.

  1. Utilizing Workers for Asynchronous Processing:

  • Ballerina's concurrency model using workers enables simultaneous handling of multiple transactions, ensuring low latency and efficient resource utilization.

  1. Integrating with External Systems:

  • Ballerina's connectors for databases, messaging systems, and external services allow it to query historical data, send notifications, and interact with fraud prevention tools.

  1. Visualizing Data Flow and Logic:

  • Ballerina's support for sequence diagrams and flowcharts enhances understanding and maintainability of complex fraud detection workflows.


  • Near-Real-Time Fraud Detection: Identifies fraudulent transactions as they occur, minimizing losses and preventing further damage.

  • Scalable and Fault-Tolerant: Handles high-volume transaction streams and gracefully manages errors to maintain system availability.

  • Reduced Development Time: Ballerina's concise syntax and built-in constructs accelerate development and deployment of fraud detection solutions.

  • Enhanced Maintainability: Visual representations and clear abstractions promote code readability and long-term maintainability.

Additional Examples of Real-Time Use Cases in Ballerina:

  • Real-time Stock Trading Platforms: Enabling rapid order placement and execution based on market fluctuations.

  • IoT Data Processing and Analytics: Analyzing sensor data in real-time to monitor equipment health, detect anomalies, and trigger actions.

  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: Providing immediate responses and personalized interactions for customer service or virtual assistants.

  • Live Streaming Applications: Enabling low-latency video and audio delivery for live events or broadcasts.

  • Online Gaming Platforms: Supporting real-time multiplayer interactions and synchronized gameplay experiences.

Example Code Ballerina Programming language

Here are some examples of Ballerina code to illustrate its key features:

1. Simple Hello World Service:

Code snippet

import ballerina/http;

service /hello on new http:Listener(9090) {

    resource function get greeting() returns string {
        return "Hello, World!";

2. RESTful API for Employee Information:

Code snippet

import ballerina/http;

type Employee record {
    string name;
    int age;
    string department;

service /employees on new http:Listener(9091) {

    resource function get employees() returns Employee[] {
        // Logic to retrieve employee data
        return [
            {name: "Alice", age: 25, department: "Engineering"},
            {name: "Bob", age: 30, department: "Sales"}

    resource function post employees(@http:Payload Employee emp) returns Employee {
        // Logic to create a new employee
        return emp;

3. Concurrent File Processing:

Code snippet

import ballerina/io;

function processFile(string filePath) {
    // Logic to process the file contents

worker w1 {

worker w2 {

4. Integration with Database:

Code snippet

import ballerina/sql;

function queryCustomers() returns sql:ResultSet {
    sql:Client dbClient = new("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydb");
    return dbClient->query("SELECT * FROM customers");

5. Event-Driven Listener:

Code snippet

import ballerina/rabbitmq;

listener rabbitmq:Listener channelListener = new(rabbitmq:DEFAULT_HOST, rabbitmq:DEFAULT_PORT);

service / on channelListener {
    resource function onMessage(rabbitmq:Message message) {
        // Handle incoming events

These examples demonstrate Ballerina's ability to handle common integration tasks, network interactions, concurrency, and event-driven programming with concise and expressive syntax.

hello world and addition of 2 numbers program in Ballerina

Here's the Ballerina code for a Hello World program and an addition of 2 numbers program:

Hello World program:

Code snippet

import ballerina/io;

public function main() {
    io:println("Hello, World!");

To run this code:

  1. Save it as a .bal file (e.g., hello_world.bal).

  2. Open a terminal in the same directory.

  3. Compile it using the Ballerina compiler: ballerina build hello_world.bal

  4. Run the compiled executable: ./hello_world.balx


Hello, World!

Addition of 2 numbers program:

Code snippet

import ballerina/io;

public function main() {
    int num1 = 10;
    int num2 = 20;
    int sum = num1 + num2;
    io:println("The sum of " + num1.toString() + " and " + num2.toString() + " is: " + sum.toString());

To run this code, follow the same steps as for the Hello World program.


The sum of 10 and 20 is: 30


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